Microelectromethical systems (MEMS)
are integrated and miniaturized versions of existing mechanical and electrical systems, and it is also possible to use these micron-sized systems for nanotechnology
applications through nanoelectromechanical systems
. The concept of MEMS was first pronounced during a microdynamic
workshop in 1987. However, the emergence of the concept of MEMS was mainly in the light of the developments in integrated circuit
works. Among these developments, molding, coating technologies, wet carving methods, dry carving methods have made micro device construction possible. The first idea for making small devices was proposed by renowned physicist Richard Feynman
in a 1959 speech calledThere's plenty of room at the bottom.
The dimensions of micro-electromechanical systems vary between 1 and 100 micrometers.
Standard physics rules in these small sizes are usually invalid. In MEMS structures, the ratio of surface area to volume is quite high, so surface effects(electrostatic forces,wetting)
dominate volume effects(inertia,thermal mass).
Micro electro-mechanical system structures consist of three parts. These sections can be summarized as the mechanical section, the drive section that runs the mechanical section, and the detection section that examines the behavior of mechanical movement. MEMS drive mechanisms vary depending on the type of drive given. MEMS structures can be thermally, electrostatically, magnetically, pneumatic and optically driven. Detection is usually done through optical and electronic signals. MEMS is an interdisciplinary concept in which studies covering many branches, especially Machinery-Material-Electronics, are mainly carried out along with all engineering branches and basic sciences.